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Does Experiential Learning
Facilitate Learners to Construct
Their Own Knowledge?
Yasmeen Jumani has been a teacher Educator
for the past 11 years. She has done her Masters in Islamic History
from the University of Karachi. She has a Master in Education from Hamdard University, Institute of Education and Social Sciences,
A VT certificate from AKU-IED along with an advance diploma in (PTEP) Professional Teacher Education Program from IIS and AKU- IED.
She may be contact at email@example.com
Undoubtedly the attendance of students can be quantified very easily in any of the class by the teacher but it is a great disappointment when they are mentally absent while important negotiation been carried out.
But this greatly depends on the mode of teaching — whether it is
child-centered or teacher-centered approach. No doubt, the
child-centered approach focuses on the involvement of children through
an exchange of ideas during the teaching-learning process, whereas the
teacher-centered approach focuses on the teacher’s behavior towards
his or her students.
There is a Chinese proverb, “I hear, I forget. I see, I remember. I
do, I understand.” Experiential learning is that process of learning
which invites the learners to partake and decide what they wish to
learn. Until the student plans out what is it that has to be discovered,
elaborated, identified, experimented upon, etc., active learning cannot
take place. The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language
describes learning as “the act, process, or experience of gaining
knowledge or skill”. The Webster definition describes learning as
“the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge: “the
child’s acquisition of language” however, there could be a variety
of responses about “simply doing” or “the activity or
participating in the experience.”
In the words of John Dewey, “Experiential learning takes place when a
person involved in an activity looks back and evaluates it, determines
what was useful or important to remember, and uses this information to
perform another activity.”
Dewey in his book The School and Social Progress (1907) advocates the
gap between the two. ‘School’, known as a learning institution,
merely emphasizes on the cognition rather than application. He thinks
that discipline is acquired through experience and it comes from within.
Today’s schooling is not providing ample opportunities to engage into
constructing their own discipline, rather they are promoting behavioral
He proposes ‘active inquiry learning’, a methodology for the
children to develop knowledge, skills and attitude that further enable
them to seek holistic development. Thus experiential learning infuses in
them an ability to be self-developed and self-disciplined.
Socrates was known for using an oral questioning procedure and
dialectical reasoning in his teaching. He would ask a question, receive
an answer, and then ask another question to compel the student to think
about the defects, limitations, or contradictions in the first answer.
This method used by Socrates became the foundation of educational
techniques, designed to motivate the learner to think carefully, to test
himself, and to improve his knowledge.
According to Robert fisher (1990), “Thinking involves critical and
creative aspects of the mind, both the use of reason and the generation
of ideas. Thinking is involved in a mental activity that helps to
formulate or solve a problem to make a decision or seek
understanding.” Thus learning is seen as the creation of knowledge
through the transformation of experience.
On the other hand, Dewey’s experiential learning is indeed an advance
form of learning where learners are involved in a particular process to
reach a point by creating experiences where they could contrast their
own knowledge. During the whole process the quest for seeking new
meaning would bring on a curiosity to explore and identify the skill to
The pedagogical approach enables learners to partake in the process
embodied in constructivism (Jonassen, Peok and Wilson; 1999). On the
other hand, constructivism rests on the notion that instead of absorbing
or passively receiving knowledge that is out there, learners should gain
thorough experiential learning — personal involvement, self-initiated
deep thinking where they can actively construct knowledge by integrating
new information and experiences into what was taught.
The pedagogy that is based on the constructivist theory such as class
discussion, group presentation, project work is supportive in
stimulating students’ creativity and fostering their learning.
My own teaching approach was based on constructivism where teaching
strategies such as think-pair-share and group presentations, project
work, role-plays, and skit presentation were commonly used.
Experiential learning opens new windows in teaching. Despite the fact
that it is a time-consuming and effort-requiring teaching approach, it
also creates the capacity in facilitators to strengthen the classroom
environment by improving classroom attendance and the participation
level with the ensuring of harmony between the facilitators and the
According to Nayak and Rao (2002), “Effective learning in a classroom
is negated if there is no enabling of professional caring and a
dedicated and peaceful environment as learning is associated with a
change in behavior as a result of experience and practice.”
Bligh (1971) reports that “students are more attentive, display better
comprehension, produce more work, and are more favorable to the teaching
method when they work cooperatively in groups rather than compete as
Researchers identify the following aspects that encourage students to
become more self-motivated:
• Give frequent, early and positive feedback that supports students’
beliefs that they can do well.
• Ensure opportunities for students’ success by assigning tasks that
are neither too easy nor too difficult.
• Help students find personal meaning and value in their work.
• Create an atmosphere that is open, positive, and conducive to
• Help students feel that they are valued members of a learning
Thus experiential learning sets up learning situations where the
participants are involved in learning through listening, reflecting and
applying by raising questions that are then answered with more questions
that make one think further about the topic at hand.
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Relation of Color with
By Munir Moosa Sewani
Children love color; in fact, we all love
color. Color is the brightest site of childhood. Children love all types of
colors and give an instant response to it. However, children's response differs from adults' reaction. If you are to communicate with children,
color should become your ally. But you need to use the color language correctly. Children use
a limited palette, which becomes wider as they grow up.
Color is the first characteristic that children can distinguish. All of us have heard that
very young children perceive only black and white colors (light and darkness).
Some young parents will paint the nursery black-and-white, buy black-and-white toys and other stuff. But in the period from six weeks to two months, the situation undergoes radical changes. First, children start to distinguish
the red color. Later they start to perceive other bright colors, and yellow among them.
Little children are attracted to bright colors. Numerous academic
research shows at what age children's preferences change. Many children under 10 call red (or pink) and yellow their
favorite colors. But having grown beyond ten, they start preferring blue. We consider it to be with the process of growing up and
the appearance of the ability to perceive different hues of mood.
Color preferences are closely connected with the gender. Numerous researches show that most little girls prefer pink, lavender or violet. Little boys like black and other dark
colors more than girls. The question has risen if those preferences are innate or acquired. Adults accustom little girls and boys to like certain
colors by choosing their clothes and toys. It's hard to give the exact answer, but we are inclined to consider
color preferences to be innate. It's a difficult problem to be solved
later in the future.
Do toys manufacturers know about it? Walk about a toy department - you'll see that they are quite well aware of
children's color preferences and they use color to attract children's attention and
to sell their products. As a company working for adults, they use the same strategies -
color characteristics of the trade mark, emphasizing certain features with the help of
Speaking about emphasizing certain characteristics by means of colors, gender identification is only one example. If you see some product in bright
colorful packaging, then the manufacturer wants to affect children and means them to be the target audience. Some parents think that manufacturers too cynically play on children's feelings. But
remember how many times color has motivated children to take some positive action.
Color is the great mean to manipulate children and teenagers. This mean is used differently and it brings different results. Not only sellers and manufacturers use children's interest towards
colors. You also can use it to teach, motivate and inspire the new generation.
Color language and children
First, let's consider how children get acquainted with colors. They learn to distinguish them long before they know the names of
colors. The point out right objects before they are able to say 'red', 'yellow' or 'green'. Children learn
colors' names at the age of 2-5. Girls usually memorize colors names earlier than boys. Of course, all children develop differently, as the process of growing up is connected with the state of nervous system.
If you want to help children learn to distinguish colors, try to do so that children learn
colors associating them with the subjects of corresponding color. Here are typical associations, understandable for an average child
Yellow - bananas, lemons, sun
Red - apples, tomatoes
Blue - jeans, sky
Green - peas, grass, leaves
Grey - an elephant
Brown - a bear, tree bark
Researches show, that, for example when you show a blue apple to a child and ask him what it is, it takes him or her more time to recognize it. Sure if you happen to communicate with little children, you know what may happen. A blue apple may seem funny to them. It testifies that a child develops the sense of
humor, ability to laugh at clumsy and wrong things.
Once a child learns to recognize and name colors, it helps him or her to learn new information. Parents always want to teach children safety regulations. We discovered that emphasizing certain qualities by means of
color helps children to remember what is dangerous. Remember that a human's eye notices
the combination of yellow and black, and brain automatically perceives this as a sign of danger. Use these
colors to mark the things that you don't want your children to play with. You may also mark those rooms in your
house in which your children mustn't go, those that are dangerous - like stairs or
the cellar. When your children grow, you still can use colors for teaching them. Certain
research showed that children with attention problems cope with the task better when stimulated with
colors. Improvement was as significant as when using drugs. It means the
color can be used in medicine. Color can also be used in food if your child doesn't like to eat
the same boring, dull food with the same golden brown color. But beware to use food
color rather than an artificial one.
I would also request teachers to add colors to their children life by giving them
many more activities of coloring, and by decorating the class and the physical environment of the school with
a lot of bright color. On this regard, I would also like to request the curriculum development authorities throughout the world to use
color pictures in books so that children can read books with much more
interest than many are now.
Moosa Sewani is one of the most famous, prominent and creative
names in the field of Education in the past 8 years. He is a
Master Trainer In Special Education, Post Graduate, Teacher
Educator and a Teacher. He is a Freelance Writer and
Photographer, in addition to his role as a featured writer for
StarTeaching's newsletter for more nearly two years now. He is
an author of the famous self-published storybook for children
titled "The MORAL STORIES FOR CHILDREN" and has also
written a Biology course book for Secondary Classes. He has
written more than 40 articles internationally on many
websites and numerous newsletters dealing with social, health,
educational and cultural issues, which are internationally
recognized and published in most of the famous world wide
websites, magazines and newspapers.
is also a Social worker, private tutor, career counselor,
musician, lyrics writer and have multi- dimensional talents.
future plan is to write dozens of informative books and articles
and to work for education and media also, in order to develop
the sense of understanding many dimensions of life through his
can contact Munir Moosa Sewani at: firstname.lastname@example.org
We Moving Into A Post-Literate Society?
By Mark Benn
Middle School Teacher
articles deal with the change to 21st Century Learning.
Are we moving into a POST-LITERATE society?
a larger percentage (possibly 80-90%) of students today are visually
oriented learners, and as I said last time, we should begin with a
visual introduction to our lessons let’s take a look at the use of
online games and interactive activities.
There are many online games that allow students to practice skills for
grades one through eight and even higher. Even though some of the games
are similar to work they would do on a worksheet the students find it
more interesting just because it’s on a computer. Other games provide
learning opportunities that could never be done in a classroom. A few of
the sites are:
Another area to explore, then use are interactive simulation sites.
Science study is growing more every day with many skills on line that
once again could not be done in the classroom except out of a book, that
doesn’t reach the students of today. Some sites are: http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/index.html
There are also whole lessons online that are interactive and keep
students engaged. I use lessons on area, perimeter, percentages,
decimals, fractions, and angles. These sites are located at: http://enlvm.usu.edu/ma/nav/index.jsp
The best way to find more sites is to do an advanced google search using
key words such as educational, interactive, games, online, and then more
specific such as space, multiplication or sixth grade. It’s important
that you try whatever you want to use first. Also, monitor what the
students are doing when on the computer. Make sure they understand in
advance what they are suppose to be learning and when completed discuss
what they found.
The key to students learning is to get them engaged. I know you will
find that they are more engaged when given the chance to go online.
Here are a
few great BLOGS to check out:
Mark Benn earned his B.S. from Western
Michigan University and his Elementary Certification from
Northern Michigan University. He is a 21 year teaching
veteran of 5th and 6th grade students at Inland Lakes Middle
School in Indian River, MI. He is currently working on
Masters of Integration of Technology from Walden University.
Prior to teaching, Mark spent 11 years as Department Manager for
Sears, Roebuck and Co. dealing with emerging technologies.
He has been married to his wife Bonnietta for 33 years with one
daughter and two sons. In the summers, Mark works for
Mackinac State Historic Parks in the as a historical
|StarTeaching Featured Writer
|Mark Benn is a leading expert in using technology
in the classroom.
You can feel free to contact him on email
or at his blogsite: http://www.furtrader.blogspot.com/
are six modules designed to test the basic ability of an
individual in terms of Memory & Concentration. Needless to
say this is the most important basic skill for not just to
survive but also to thrive in this competitive environment.
Each of the six modules tests the six variants of Memory &
Concentration in an individual, namely:
of these modules runs at three different levels, from easy to
At each level, the individual's performance is depicted as
A feedback has been built into the software for all these 18
levels depending on the marks one scores during the
Each individual can assess his/her performance any time by
clicking on "history", which gives complete details
of date and time of taking the tests, marks scored each time
and even time taken to do the test. This builds the confidence
level and encourages more participation to eventually
culminate in improvement and enhancement of memory and
Essentially, this software is a SELF AWARENESS tool that
surely motivates the individual to realize one's capability
and seek or be receptive for improvement. Also, if repeatedly
done over a period of time works as Training tool to enhance
software package is specifically designed to help young
children to learn basic skills that will help them in
school. Continued follow-up will give these young
learners success as they mature.
Three versions of the software exist:
Individual Software on either CD or Online, Family
Version Software, and an Institutional Software package.
StarTeaching wholeheartedly supports
and endorses this software. It will make a difference
with your child or student.
HERE to order your own copy today:
Child Left Behind (part 1)
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law
107-110), commonly known as NCLB, is a United States federal law that
reauthorize's a number of federal programs that aim to improve the
performance of America's primary and secondary schools by increasing the
standards of accountability for states, school districts and schools, as
well as providing parents more flexibility in choosing which schools
their children will attend. Additionally, it promotes an increased focus
on reading and re-authorizes the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
The effectiveness and desirability of the Act's measures
continue to be a matter of vigorous debate. On May 3, 2005, Utah
governor Jon Huntsman signed a measure into state law that allows that
state's districts to ignore provisions of the law that conflict with
that state's programs, making it the first state to enact such a law.
The Department of Education has threatened to withhold federal education
funding as a result.
This act is the latest of a number of federal laws
implementing education reform. The best known law previously was Goals
2000, which was essentially federal codification of the principles of
Outcomes Based Education, and which helped prompt many states to adopt
Performance Based Tests such as WASL and CLAS, along with other
controversial methods of teaching reading, mathematics, and science. Key
to OBE was the concept taken from TQM of measuring quality and
implementing processes which would result in continual improvement. One
of the key architects of NCLB was Sandy Kress, who was also instrumental
in the Texas version of OBE, the TAAS test.
The act is the result of bi-partisan cooperation
between, among others, Senator Edward M. Kennedy's, and President George
W. Bush's No Child Left Behind proposals. Several of the proposals were
based on the reform strategies instituted by President Bush during his
tenure as governor of Texas.
The act began as House Resolution 1 in March 2001 during
the 107th Congress. The 670 page act was eventually passed by the House
of Representatives on December 13, 2001 by a vote of 381-41. It passed
in the Senate by a vote of 87-10 on December 18, 2001. It was signed
into law by President Bush on January 8, 2002 at Hamilton High School in
Hamilton, Ohio. On hand for the signing ceremony were Democratic Rep.
George Miller of California, Democratic Sen. Edward Kennedy of
Massachusetts, Secretary of Education Rod Paige, Republican Rep. John
Boehner of Ohio, and Republican Sen. Judd Gregg of New Hampshire.
Teachers' unions such as the National Education
Association and the American Federation of Teachers have opposed NCLB
reforms almost from inception, and have worked to both weaken the law's
provisions and to turn around public perception of the law and its
necessity. The unions question NCLB's effectiveness as presently written
and funded, and note a number of difficulties school districts face in
implementing its provisions. Supporters of NCLB's reforms on the other
hand claim that union opposition may have more to do with the fact that
key provisions of the law will have the effect of reducing union income
as unionized school districts with failing schools are forced to
reconstitute and teachers are in some cases no longer forced to join
unions or allowed to bargain collectively even if they opt for union
membership. In inner city school districts where public school students
consistently under-perform, this union resistance to NCLB has often
pitted the teachers' unions against parents who see their children's low
performance as indicative of poor instruction. The teachers'
counter-argument often stresses researchsuggesting that
a student's home environment plays a larger part in determining his or
her test scores than does the school environment.
In 2004, the U.S. Department of Education entered into a
contract with Ketchum Inc. to promote the law. A $240,000 subcontract
was provided to the Graham Williams Group which included political
commentator Armstrong Williams promoting the act via his television show
and additionally television and radio advertisements. USA Today reported
that his contract included the stipulation that he "regularly
comment on NCLB during the course of his broadcasts." Rep. Miller,
a member of the House Education Committee, called the contract "a
very questionable use of taxpayers' money" that is "probably
illegal". Armstrong said that he "wanted to do it because it's
something I believe in", but later said "my judgment was not
the best. I wouldn't do it again, and I learned from it." The same
public relations firm that arranged Williams' contract also produced a
video promoting the No Child Left Behind Act designed to come across as
a news story. The advertisements were pulled after a similar ad for the
new Medicare ad was challenged by the Government Accountability Office
for being 'covert propaganda', which is against federal law. The firm
also provided the Department of Education with monthly rankings of
reporters based on how they cover the law.
Despite the fierce controversy about the law among
educators, a Gallup survey found as many as seven in 10 Americans say
they don't know enough to have an opinion about No Child Left Behind.
The same is true for parents, where 55 percent say they don't know
enough to say whether the law is improving local public education or
not. Broadly speaking, opinion surveys have shown strong public support
for the concept of setting and enforcing standards in public schools,
including the use of testing. But a recent survey by the nonpartisan
group Public Agenda found that parents now view other issues, like
school funding and discipline, as more pressing.
Look for more in Part 2 of this article, coming next month!
Novels by Frank Holes, Jr.
Part mystery, part science fiction, Year
of the Dogman is an imaginative, compelling, and adrenaline-pumping
adventure. Author Frank Holes, Jr. takes no prisoners in creating a
diabolical creature that leaves the forest to prey on the hapless hamlet
. When night falls, the nocturnal beast, Dogman, scares the living
daylights out of anyone he happens upon as he searches for a timeless
treasure stolen from a Native American tribe. In the midst of the chaos, a
young teacher is forced to put two and two together no matter how high the
cost to rid the village of the treacherous man-beast who thrives on
destruction and terror.
In The Haunting of Sigma,
Frank Holes, Jr. returns fans of the legendary Dogman to the wild world
of cryptozoology in
. This darker, far more
sinister prequel to Holes’s first novel fully establishes his hold
upon the imaginations of readers all over the
. June 1987 ushers in the
hot, dry summer season, but something else far more horrifying has taken
up residence in the deep wilderness in
. The Dogman, a supernatural
combination of canine and man, has returned to wreck havoc upon the
tiny, sleepy community of Sigma.
Based upon the
epic Greek tale of The Odyssey, yet set in the American Wild West, The Longquist Adventures: Western Odyssey chronicles the journey of a young boy and his guide through a perilous
world of dangerous encounters and fantastic creatures.
It is a world of gun fights at high noon, stampedes on the great
plains, stagecoach robbery, and an ultimate showdown with a ruthless,
powerful gangster aboard a turn-of-the-century paddlewheel in the San
Francisco Bay. Can the
time-traveling boy and the law-abiding Marshal restore order to the
chaos of the American West gone truly wild?
of the Dogman Website
Here For The
of Sigma Website
Here For The
The Dogman, a creature of
MythMichigan, is an excellent example of modern-day folklore to
study in your classes.
The Longquist Adventures, written for
elementary students, is excellent for teaching mythology and
classic stories to young children.
Western Odyssey, the first novel
in the series, is now available!
We now have special offers on Classroom Sets of our Novel.
Click here for more information:
A CLASS SET
A Place for New Teachers, Student Teachers, and Interns
Biographies And Interviewing
Our biography project begins with careful
planning long before the actual class implementation. The first
step is to set up the access to information. We arrange our time
with our local librarian so she's well aware of the project
expectations. She always thinks of details we need, and she's
really good about setting out autobiography/biography books and
materials for us.
The students each check out an autobiography/biography book from the
library. I require teacher's permission and approval before check out.
I do allow students to use outside books, but they must still be brought
in to be approved.
We allow students to 'test drive' the books for a one-week span. If the
subject is just too boring or awful for the student, I do allow them to
change books (though the due date stays the same!) The most important
aspect to me is the reading of the book; we'll take time every day
during the project to quiet read in the classroom. I want to stress the
importance of the reading of biographical text, since it's much
different than the fictional works they normally read.
You can also skip ahead of the reading of the book and move right into
the fact finding session. If you have internet access and an updated
encyclopedia you can find most or even all of the facts abut your
subject. But make sure your students are reading the books too. This is
important to get an overall, rounded-view of their character. Be careful
that your students have chosen biographies and not historical fiction or
the various 'diary' books out there now!
This next step is to identify what information you want your students to
find about their subject. We call this our 'fact-finding' stage. We
complete a note taking sheet which organizes the students'
research. You can find a copy of our 'fact-finding' worksheet on
our website. There are basic facts to find such as personal and
family information, employment, and education.
Then there are the facts which must be uncovered, such as mentors they
had, who they have influenced, their impact on society, and why they'll
be remembered in history. Lastly, I'll have students complete several
short writing assignments extending the new knowledge. Sometimes
students create interview questions and formulate fictional answers
based on what they think the person would say. Another idea is to create
a fictional conversation with that person which is held around a dinner
table or around a campfire. There are many applications you can create
to use the students' facts.
Finally, you need to consider what the students will do with their
completed research. We have had students create PowerPoint documents and
give in-class presentations. We have had them create posters to display
their findings. This year we're putting our research onto each student's
website along with any multi-media that is available to us (such as clip
art, photos, audio and/or video clips).
Most years, we will have students pair up and interview each
other. Students find out personal information about each other,
such as basic family and friends, schools and education, and where
they've lived. They pose questions on likes/dislikes, favorites,
and goals for the future. You can go ahead and create a short sheet of
sample questions, then allow students to create their own as the
interview goes on (also check out our website for a FREE printable copy
of the interview sheet we use in class). Allow each student about 10-15
minutes to ask questions and write down answers, then have students
Now you have enough information to create student biographies (or give
the data sheets to the owners and have students create autobiographies).
We will write these up in a narrative form to tell a life story, but
we've also done projects like PowerPoints, web pages, and posters. One
favorite is cutting out t-shirt shapes out of paper and having students
write on them and decorate them with photos, drawings, and clip art.
These are then presented to the class and hung in the hallways.
The biography project is not only required in our curriculum, but it is
also fun for the students. It is also a great means of incorporating an
informational text (non-fiction) into your class curriculum.
Interested in FREE writing activities you can print out and use
immediately in your classroom? Simply click the following link to our
writing page: http://www.starteaching.com/writing.htm
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preparing yourself to enter the educational profession. Simply
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of 1000 Mirrors"
faces in the world are mirrors. What kind of reflections do you
see in the faces of the people you meet?
Long ago in a small, far away
village, there was place known as the House of 1000 Mirrors. A
small, happy little dog learned of this place and decided to
visit. When he arrived, he bounced happily up the stairs to the
doorway of the house. He looked through the doorway with his ears
lifted high and his tail wagging as fast as it could.
great surprise, he found himself staring at 1000 other
happy little dogs with their tails wagging just as fast
as his. He smiled a great smile, and was answered with
1000 great smiles just as warm and friendly.
As he left the House, he
thought to himself, "This is a wonderful place. I will come
back and visit it often."
In this same village, another
little dog, who was not quite as happy as the first one, decided
to visit the house. He slowly climbed the stairs and hung his head
low as he looked into the door.
saw the 1000 unfriendly looking dogs staring back at
him, he growled at them and was horrified to see 1000
little dogs growling back at him.
As he left, he thought to
himself, "That is a horrible place, and I will never go back
All the faces in the world
are mirrors. What kind of reflections do you see in the faces of
the people you meet?
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